Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Internet And Its Impact On The World Of Commerce

Rohn 1 Imagine a world where every time someone wanted to buy or sell a product their only option was to travel to a store. Today, shopping on the internet is commonplace, but less than 20 years ago companies would hire technicians to teach them how to use the scroll bar and other simple functions. Once enough people knew how to use the internet, the idea of selling products online came into fruition. Many people believed they could make a large sum of money quickly by starting a business online. Before this time the internet was too complicated to use for most people. Online shopping and retail have revolutionized shopping and has promoted economic growth, made it easier to buy and sell, and has created a new type of danger. The internet provides a way for small businesses to start up. In the world of commerce, The Internet threatened established incumbents with oblivion and that small upstarts could find opportunities in the digital age. (Ryan) â€Å"eBay proved that the Internet was a marketplace so massive, and so diverse, that nothing is beyond commodification . It might have seemed as if the network had been designed for this express purpose. In reality this was the opposite of the truth. The Internet became a global marketplace without any explicit plan to make it so† (Ryan). It was realized by some that the Internet’s full effect on commerce had only begun to be revealed. The vast new marketplace of the internet provides a low risk startup option, which promotesShow MoreRelatedImpacts Of Technology E Commerce1471 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Impact of Technology in Business – E-Commerce Since the introduction of the Internet in the 1950’s, development of technology began for use by the military until it was soon introduced to the public for commercial and private use. Throughout the decades ever since, technology was then on the road to sudden rapid expansion, with a big boom in new hardware, software and internet capabilities such as faster computer speeds, faster internet connections and efficient software. Convenient services appearedRead MoreImpact Of E Commerce On International Trade Essay1045 Words   |  5 PagesE-COMMERCE ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE MUKESHV.M , (MCom,MBA Finanace,MPhil) Assistant Professor In Commerce And Management Studies, Mar Osthastheos College (Affiliated To University Of Calicut) Perumpilavu,Kunnamkulam,Thrissur-680519Ph:04885 282000Mob:9895617021Email:Mukeshmurli640@Gmail.Com Abstract The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of E-Commerce on international trade . electronic commerce offers economy wide benefits to all countries. The gains are likely to be concentratedRead MoreThe Effects Of E Commerce On Global Trade1524 Words   |  7 PagesThe effects of E-commerce in Global Trade Introduction E-commerce is a term describing a new and innovative more efficient way of doing business completely by use of the internet, to conduct trade dealings both on a national and global scale. E-commerce offers a different mode of performing trade throughout the world without the need for tangible contact between the buyer and seller. The new transaction mode of purchasing and supplying goods has become explosive in terms of efficiency, competitivenessRead MoreTechnology Makes the World Smaller1697 Words   |  7 PagesTechnology Make the World Smaller Office 2004 Test Drive User Table of Contents Commerce 4 Dell6 Ebay 7 E-cash8 Work Cited11 Footnotes12 Technology Makes the World Smaller The international marketplace is changing very fast every day. E-commerce and E-Business is now one of the standard ways to do business. The Internet has opened up vast opportunities for business to tap into new markets all over the world. The use of the Internet removes all geographical constraints, permits the instant establishmentRead MoreDiscuss the Global Impact of E-Commerce on Society. Essay1207 Words   |  5 PagesP 2.2 Discuss the global impact of e-Commerce on society. Ans Positive effects of e-commerce on society * Convenience * Helpful for disables and aged people * Time saving * Information availability * Helpful for new business * Jobs for society * 24 hour service * Available niche products * Disintermediation * Environment friendly Negative effects of e-commerce on society * Unemployment * Increase in crime * HealthRead MoreImpact of E-Commerce to Malaysian Economy854 Words   |  4 PagesIMPACT OF E-COMMERCE ON THE MALAYSIAN ECONOMY E-commerce is the new buzz word. With the advent of the Internet, the development of e-commerce in both the developed and developing economies has developed at a rapid pace. Developing countries such as Malaysia are catching up fast as there are already 1.2 million Internet users. The private sector and the Government have taken initiatives to implement e-commerce. Physical and legal infrastructure for e-commerce in Malaysia have been put in placeRead MoreThe Impact Of E Commerce On Retail Industry1697 Words   |  7 PagesThe impact of E-Commerce on the ‘Retail Industry’ August 8 2016 The Findings and Analysis of customer information on an e-commerce platform. The Improved Marketing techniques of e-commerce. Security issues associated with conducting business over the internet and the methods used to combat these security vulnerabilities’ on e-commerce and the use of social media e-commerce the conventional method of conducting business today â€Æ' The Main Elements of E-Commerce and the impact of E-Commerce on ‘RetailRead MoreImportance Of E Commerce Infrastructure On Present Era And The Coming Generations1108 Words   |  5 Pages E-commerce Infrastructure Vijay Kumar Mayure California University of Management and Sciences â€Æ' Introduction E-commerce is abbreviated as electronic Commerce which deals with buying and selling the products through the networking applications such as Internet. The main purpose of this paper is to study about the importance of E-commerce Infrastructure in present era and the coming generations. Hardware, Software, and Networks are the basic varieties required for E-commerce InfrastructureRead MoreArticle Review: Electronic Commerce Essay1164 Words   |  5 PagesThe World Wide Web(WWW)has been providing extensive opportunities for merchants to conduct their businesses online. Electronic commerce is a new form of online exchange in which most transactions occur among parties that have never met. As in traditional exchanges, concerns about trust have been identified as a barrier to customer for engaging in e-commerce and a barrier for the success of electronic commerce. In the traditional market, a typical customer would be limited to choosingRead MoreThe Impact Of Internet On Supply Chain Strategies1563 Words   |  7 Pages The Impact of the Internet on Supply Chain Strategies The Internet has played a major role in the changing of supply chain strategies. The growth of the Internet over the years have presented supply chains with various opportunities for service improvement and cost reduction. These opportunities can include: †¢ On-line vendor catalogs available to customers from which customers can find, select, and order items directly from suppliers without any human contact. †¢ The ability to track shipments using

Monday, May 18, 2020

Taking a Look at Gun Control - 554 Words

The government has become lazy! This is very important because if anyone is allowed to buy a gun nowhere would be safe. People would not like leaving there home because they would feel unsafe and scared. The government needs to make sure the laws are being followed, that they have proper enforcement, and think about the effects on the people if they are too leaniant with the gun control laws. Gun laws are slowly getting less strict the effects of that are being shown today, gun laws should stay the same. If the laws are less strict more criminals will be able to buy guns which is bad. If the laws are even more strict then some people might not be able to buy guns to protect themselves and their homes. The government denied 126,000 people out of the 7,831,000 people who applied for them.(Longely) This shows that the government itself is becoming more lenient with gun control. The amount of people that werent able to get guns were only â€Å"about 1.6 percent â€Å" of the total amount.(Longely) The quote shows how the government is slowly denying less and less people so they are eventually going to stop denying altogether! The government needs to make their laws on gun control stay the same as the past, not let it drop more each year. The government has failed to pay attention to the fact that many states are not following the laws around gun purchasing. If more criminal s are allowed to buy guns that could cause a lot more violence in the United States. The Associated PressShow MoreRelatedTaking a Look at Gun Control1263 Words   |  5 PagesGun control is one of the most controversial topics in our country. There are two main views. The first is the view as it is said in the United States Constitution, they guns should be legal for civilian ownership. The second view, and the severity of its enforcement varies from person to person, it that gun control should be enacted. This could just mean smaller magazines, to no semi-automatic guns, or even to a complete ban. The founding father’s view is basically what is still used todayRead MoreTaking a Look at Gun Control1226 Words   |  5 Pageswater in abundance. For healthcare, I will work on improving the Obama care system and provide health care for every living, breathing American. I will do my best to enforce the affordable healthcare act. The Affordable Care Act allows consumers control over their health care options. There should not be an insurance company who won’t cover a person because of a disease that they have. There should not be an elderly person who is turned down for being old. No young American should be denied fromRead MoreTaking a Look at Gun Control 876 Words   |  3 PagesGun Control There is a raging battle in the United States court rooms extending all the way to many communities throughout the US. That battle, or to be more exact, question is, â€Å"would stricter gun control laws be beneficial to the United States?† There are two perspectives on the ever-continuing question, one being that stricter gun control would be beneficial and cause less harm to citizens, and the contrasting view is that it is a right to be able to own guns, and that they are used for protectionRead MoreDifferent Views on Gun Control841 Words   |  3 Pages Gun Control is a big topic right now and this Op Ed paper will be on the very important topic of gun control. How the laws can be improved and how people think it should be solved. Some think that firearms should be banned altogether. Others think that improving the purchasing of guns and more strict laws will improve the gun violence problem. Better education of handling/safety of guns, better background checks and a test on your knowledge of the gun you are wanting to purchase is the bestRead MoreEssay Americans Should Keep their Right to Bear Arms1107 Words   |  5 Pagesabout controlling guns and many people are trying to discontinue giving citizens the right to own or possess firearm weapons. There are many people who think that nobody should be allowed to possess a firearm where as there are many other people that believe they deserve the right to own a firearm for many reasons. Because of the large differential between beliefs on this topic there is a large debate within the US Government whether or not to allow citizens to continue using guns and keep them. Read MoreCalifornia And Washington Dc : The Highest Gun Murder Rate938 Words   |  4 Pageshighest gun murder rate with 1,220 homicides, which accounted for 68 percent or 3.25 gun murders per every 100,000 people. Washington DC had the highest per 100,000 people gun murders with 12 per 100,000 and the highest gun used robberies w ith 242.56 out of every 100,000 people (Howerton, 2013). Seeing these statistics would probably get you thinking California and Washington DC must be pretty lax on their control, wrong, California was actually even the honors as the strongest state on control, whileRead MoreEssay on Both Sides of Gun Control in the United States1442 Words   |  6 PagesUsually when people think about guns they think about crime. But are the two really related? Do guns really lead to crime? And if they do, do laws that restrict firearm ownership and the use of guns stop the crime or protect people? These are the questions many politicians are asking themselves when creating gun control laws. The debate over gun control is nothing new. As you can see this debate still goes on today and is the cause for the beginning of gun control laws. Guns are extremely powerful weaponsRead MorePersuasive Essay On Gun Control1215 Words   |  5 Pagesgunman ended up taking twenty six innocent lives. However, this gunman could have taken more if this innocent bystander did not step in the gunman could have shot more people or have went to other churches and shot them up. Although we had someone stand up to this shooter with a gun and probably saved many more lives. Why are people still saying the gun is the problem like this quote by Eliot Spitzer â€Å"Yes, people pull the trigger - but guns are the instrument of death. Gun control is necessary, andRead MoreThere Are Four Main Ideological Perspectives In The Political1302 Words   |  6 Pagesgovernmental health care. They would prefer the government take a few steps back when it comes to providing the public with things like welfare, social security, or health care. Conservatives want the government to have more control in social issues and therefore the control on abortion an d gay marriage. They also want to maintain traditional â€Å"American† values and like the government to provide people with freedom to make their own decisions in order to reach their goals. These are two general explanationsRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control951 Words   |  4 PagesGun control has been a big topic for the past decade in the united states. These debates will rise and fall time in and time out after something horrific happens in the state. Anti-Gun supporters do not realize that it is extremely difficult to regulate something in the states that is a big portion of our economy.Would stricter gun laws change anything? So far statistically It has been proven otherwise one must consider how a citizen would defend themselves when they are faced with terror. How will

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Globalization In Usa - 1244 Words

Britain’s vote to exit the European Union, Opposition by the U.S. to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), and the undergoing renegotiations of the North-American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) are just a few examples of the increase in anti-trade sentiments in recent years. Protectionist sentiments undermine the broader economic benefits of international trade and create uncertainty among trading partners. Trade liberalization is a key component of the world economic agenda required for sustained reduction of global food insecurity, poverty, and inequality. Trade boosts productivity, spurs innovation, lowers prices, and increases access to imports. For example, Canada’s productivity is estimated to have risen by 13.6% as a result of free†¦show more content†¦The economic literature acknowledges that decisions to export are based on both productivity and on the appeal of the firm’s products to consumers and businesses. Firms with higher productivity have lo wer costs, and firms facing a higher demand, have larger market shares (Li, 2014). While new entrants are often times just as productive, or even more so, than incumbent firms, they face lower demand, and thus higher attrition rates (Haltiwanger et al. 2014). New and potential exporters might be uncertain about how consumers and other businesses will perceive their product. Over time, however, a firm that experiences higher demand than anticipated will learn about consumer preferences in the new market and expand production. A firm that experiences less demand than initially anticipated, will revise its beliefs and cut back on production, and may even find it optimal to exit the market (Arkolakis et. al, 2017). A particularly large gap in the economic literature is that productivity and learning about demand have been assumed to be two separate processes that do not affect each other (Haltiwanger et al., 2014; Timoshenko, 2015). A cursory view of export behavior, however, suggests t hat demand learning is endogenously related to productivity growth. Based on information gathered on consumer preferences, new exporters can enhance theirShow MoreRelatedNatura Case Study1159 Words   |  5 Pagesinternational investment strategy. After reviewing whether the company is capable of dealing with globalization, we move on to measure the Natura’s international marketing strategy. Is Russian the best next step for Natura’s international foot for? If yes, we propose the possible alternatives for entering this market by minimizing the political risk and operating risk. (1) Was the company ready to go globalization? Evaluating criteria as follows: * Organization structure culture Natura’s unique organizationRead MoreEssay on Globalization1614 Words   |  6 Pagesand contested topic in today’s context. Globalization includes aspects like: economics, politics, ideas, knowledge, culture, society, environment, health, social etcetera. Though globalization can be traced back into time immemorial, but the extent and magnitude of present globalization is unprecedented. The integration and interdependence of globalization implies that today local event can have global impact and vice-versa. With the ongoing globalization process, it raises concerns about internationalRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Spiritual Perspectives On Globalization 906 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Spiritual Perspectives on Globalization† written by Ira Rifkin and published by Skylight Paths Publishers in 2003, Rifkin defines globalization as a fusion of economic level, which encircles all the multinational companies that made possible the capital flows, cultural level, which encompass the homogenization of culture by the countries that undermine others and individual level, which features the consumerism and boost of consumer values (Rifkin). Still, globalization may reduce or increase inequalityRead MoreGlobalization, Pros and Cons for Developing Countries938 Words   |  4 Pagesterm â€Å"Globalization† for developing countries. Some social, economic and environmental issues are discussed in the paper. This Document addresses the advantages and disadvantages of the term â€Å"Globalization† for developing countries. Some social, economic and environmental issues are discussed in the paper. Hosein Rahmati Hosein Rahmati Globalization, Pros And Cons For Developing Countries January 2012 Globalization, Pros And Cons For Developing Countries January 2012 Globalization couldRead MoreThe Fashion Industry And Manufacturing Process842 Words   |  4 Pagesthe globalization of the fashion industry brings with it the realization that there are advantages to expanding the global market. Offshoring the industry typically brings about lower production costs, which are passed on to the consumer through lower prices. There is also an influx of jobs to economically deprived nations (there is a caveat to this notion, which will be explained fully under the disadvantages) and quicker turn-around times for production and delivery (That Made in the USA Premium)Read MoreCritical Thinking of Globalization1030 Words   |  5 Pagesthousand year old phenomenon Globalization, initiated by the Silk Road which linked Europe and China has widely broadened in today’s scenario. It is defined as a progression of unification of diverse countries across the globe enhanced by foreign trade, international investment, flow of technology and labour. Global ization has diversely affected the political, social, cultural condition of various countries in negative and positive manner. (1) (10) 2)Argument Against Globalization 2.1) Global EconomicRead MoreGlobalization: Good or Bad1133 Words   |  5 PagesGlobalization: Good or Bad Plamen Peev peev.pl@gmail.com Augustine Worth ENG 290 – Advanced Writing Argumentative Essay November 30, 2010 â€Å"I, Pencil, simple though I appear to be, merit your wonder and awe, a claim I shall attempt to prove. In fact, if you can understand me—no, thats too much to ask of anyone—if you can become aware of the miraculousness which I symbolize, you can help save the freedom mankind is so unhappily losing. I have a profound lesson to teach. And I can teach thisRead MoreThe General Impact of Management in International Business1075 Words   |  5 Pagesensure the globalization of business. So, what is the general impact of management in the international business? In this essay this question will be clearly answered by deep details, concerning the important issues meet generally the managers in business international, such as: Conflict of culture, ethical issues, and fair trade issues. And the advent of the Multinational Corporation will be largely explained. Finally, as example, the difference between the managerial styles of USA and Japan willRead MoreWe Can Not Succeed When Half Of Us Are Held Back879 Words   |  4 Pagesheld back†. Malala Yousafzai. This is the way that feels a young girl in a globalized world today. There is not clear when Globalization starts, but some people believe that it begins with the end of the Cold War and the separation of the Soviet Union, others along with the arrival of man on the moon or with the development of telecommunications. As a matter of fact, Globalization is not always a synonymous of progress; however, the process of people’s interaction and their desire of succeed along withRead MoreIntroduction Globalization960 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Introduction Globalization is an ongoing process integrating economies, industries, markets, cultures, societies and policies around the world. Whether globalization is good or bad is a question that people around the globe are constantly debating over. The answer depends on which part of the world you stand on, for globalization have different impacts on every ‘participant’. The Good The good side of globalization is that it promotes open markets which allows businesses to communicate effectively

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Lack Of Extreme Personal Tension - 926 Words

However, while most of the people who Milgram tested obeyed power, they also showed signs of extreme personal tension. This elucidates their humanity, individuality and the possibility for defiance. Administering the shocks caused their stress to reach â€Å"extremes rarely seen in sociophysical laboratory experiments† (137). They would â€Å"sweat, tremble, stutter, bite their lips†, have â€Å"nervous laughter† (137). Three subjects even had â€Å"full-blown, uncontrollable seizures† (137). They did not want to inflict harm. Beneath the violence, they are empathetic, they are human. Fourteen of these people refused to administer the most extreme shocks; one protested â€Å"I can’t go on with this; no this isn’t right† and another said, â€Å"I can’t do that to a man† (139). This shows that a minority defied orders and maintained their morals. It proves that we are humans are not powerless to defy authority. However, it must also be considered that there was nothing to lose for Milgram’s subjects, the stakes in Rwanda were life or death. The subject’s suffered no losses if they were to disobey, â€Å"no monetary loss would come† and â€Å"no punishment would ensue† (140). And yet, twenty six of the forty subjects administered the shocks. If they were faced with violence, intimidation or death, how many more would have continued to electrocute to the highest level? In Rwanda, those who defied orders were deemed Tutsis â€Å"accomplices† and were â€Å"among the first to be killed† (448). Frighteningly, the actions ofShow MoreRelatedEffective Leaders Motivate And Motivate Followers And Achieve Collective Goals1599 Words   |  7 Pages(Drory Gluskinos. 1980; Becker O Hair. 2007; Deluga, 2001). Machiavellianism is an extreme inclination to acquire and maintain power within a socially competitive situation (Judge, Piccolo, Kosalka, 2009). Machiavelliani sm leaders display a lack of affect in interpersonal relationships and limited concern with morality displayed through manipulative, deceitful and exploitive behaviour in the interests of personal goals (Becker O Hair, 2007). Niccolo Machiavellistated that a leader should possessRead MoreSex Drive And Its Effect On Society1267 Words   |  6 Pagesas their desire or urge to release tensions through any sexual outlet. The notion of a sex drive and its existence is one that can be debated. There are too many variations of the idea to come to one consensus. Considering most of the evidence provided we could infer that a sex drive does exist. Still, this is not true for each individual case. Sex drive is extremely subjective and is only present if an individual has a desire for the sexual release of tensions we may experience. With little or noRead MoreCauses of Workplace Stress969 Words   |  4 Pageschallenges that can also have negative effects. 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He found that, even under the most extreme and terrible circumstances, we as a species are capable of overcoming our baser instincts, to reach out beyond ourselves for something greater, and to be truly selfless. Frankl saw this dualistic potential as a universal functioning of human natureRead More Bipolar Disorder versus Unpolar Disorder Essay501 Words   |  3 Pagesfocused on mainly one gene and resulted with positive evidence to support that that gene is linked to bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a type of manic depression classified by those affected having extreme polar opposite emotions. Those who suffer from bipolar disorder, go from extreme highs (mania) to very lows, (depression). 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Procurement Ethics and Quality of Goods Procured in Uganda Free Essays

string(148) " to come up with particular issues that need to be addressed in order to improve their effectviness and efficiency in their procurement activities\." MAKERERE UNIVERSITY PROCUREMENT ETHICS AND QUALITY OF PRODUCTS PROCURED IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF THE MINISTRY OF WORKS AND TRANSPORT) BY KIYO MWENDA MUCHIRI 07/K/3250/EXT SUPERVISOR MR ANTHONY TIBAINGANA A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF COMMERCE OF MAKERERE UNIVERSITY. JULY 2011 DECLARATION I Kiyo Mwenda Muchiri, do hereby declare that procurement ethics and quality of products procured in the public sector is entirely my own original work ,except where acknowledged,and that it has not been submitted before to any other institution of higher learning for the award of degree. Signed†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Date†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. We will write a custom essay sample on Procurement Ethics and Quality of Goods Procured in Uganda or any similar topic only for you Order Now Name:Mr Kiyo Mwenda Muchiri APPROVAL This research report has been submitted for examination with my approval as the candidate’s university supervisor. Signed†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Date†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Name:Mr Anthony Tibaingana DEDICATION This research work is dedicated to my dear mother MERCY MUTHONI MUCHIRI for the continued love support and motivation may God bless you very much. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge the contribution provided by the individuals and insituition mentioned below. First and foremost i would like to recognise the constant support and contribution provided by supervisor Mr Antony Tibaingana. Special acknowledgement goes to my loving aunt Nelly Karimi for her continued moral support love and care. Special thanks goes to the staff of ministry of works and transport and amproc international for their contribution to the completion of this work. My sincere gratitudes also goes to collegues George,Nelson,Kibet,Dickson. Omar,Oscar and Nyambati who i have shared my time of study with for their support throughout the course of my study. TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTPAGE DECLARATIONi APPROVALii DEDICATIONiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTSiv TABLE OF CONTENTSv LIST OF TABLESix LIST OF FIGURESx ACRONYMSxi ABSTRACTxii CHAPTER ONE1 1. 1Background of the Study1 1. 2 Statement of the Problem3 1. 3 Purpose of the Study4 . 4 Objectives of the Study4 1. 5 Research Question4 1. 6Scope of the Study4 1. 6. 1Time Scope5 1. 6. 2Subject Scope5 1. 6. 3Geographical Scope5 1. 7Significance of the Study5 CHAPTER TWO6 LITERATURE REVIEW6 Introduction:6 2. 1Ethics6 2. 1. 1Procurement Ethics6 2. 2How Ethics is ensured in Public Procurement6 2. 3Ethical Issues in Procurement. 8 2. 3. 1Corruption8 2. 3. 2Conflict of Interest11 2. 3. 3Donor Interest12 2. 3. 4Delayment of Funds13 2. 4 Quality13 2. 4. 1Quality of Products13 2. 4. 2Determinants of Quality14 2. 4. 3Public Procurement and Effective Quality Products and Service Delivery. 15 2. 5Public Procurement16 2. 5. 1Procurement in the Ministry of Work and Transport17 2. 5. 2Procurement Cycle in the Ministry of Works and Transport18 2. 5. 3Procurement Methods Followed in the Ministry of Works and Transport19 2. 6Effects of Unethical Procurement20 2. 7Conclusion:21 CHAPTER THREE22 Introduction:22 3. 1Research Design22 3. 2 Survey Population22 3. 3 Sampling Design22 3. 3. 1Sampling Size22 3. 4Source of Data23 3. 4. 1Primary Data23 3. 4. 2Secondary Data23 3. 5Data Collection Methods23 3. 5. 1Observation23 3. 5. 2Survey24 3. Data Collection Instrument24 3. 6. 1Questionnaire24 3. 6. 2Documentary review24 3. 6. 3Interview guide,24 3. 7Data Processing Analysis and Presentation24 3. 7. 1Data processing. The researcher after gathering the data then edit code classify and tabulate the data. 24 3. 7. 2Data analysis. 24 Data presentation. 24 CHAPTER FOUR25 PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS, DISCUSSION AND INTERPRETATION25 Introduction:25 4. 1Demographic Characteristics of Respondents25 4. 2Findings on how products are purchased in the organization27 4. 3 Findings on causes of unethical practice in procurement31 4. Findings on the relationship between ethics and quality of goods procured33 4. 5Ethics in the Organization38 CHAPTER FIVE39 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS39 Introduction:39 5. 2Summary of findings39 5. 2. 1Findings on the procurement procedure followed under the Ministry of Works and Transport. 39 5. 2. 2Findings on the causes of unethical conduct in procurement in the ministry of Work and Transport. 39 5. 2. 3 Findings on what is the relationship between procurement ethics and quality of product procured. 39 5. 3Conclusions:40 5. 4Recommendation:40 5. 5Areas for further research40 REFRENCES41 APPENDICES42 APPENDIX ( i)Questionnaire42 APPENDIX (ii)Interview guide47 LIST OF TABLES TABLEPAGE Table 1: Showing Sample Size23 Table 2: Showing response rate of respondents25 Table 3: Showing the age of the respondents25 Table 4: Showing the Level of Education26 Table 5: Showing Marital status27 Table 6: Showing how long one has worked for the Organization27 Table 7: showing whether purchase requisition are handled on time28 Table 8: Showing whether procedures followed helps in procuring quality products29 Table 9: Showing whether products procured are of quality30 Table 10: showing whether weak enforcement measure of procurement law contributes to unethical practice31 Table 11: Showing whether moral degradation in the society is a cause of unethical conducts32 Table 12: Showing whether unethical practice of bidder contributes to unethical conduct by staff33 Table 13: showing whether the organization code of ethics contributes to quality products being procured35 Table 14: showing whether suppliers meet organization specification of quality products36 Table 15: showing whether unethical practice staff has resulted in procurement poor quality products. 36 LIST OF CHARTS FIGURE. PAGE Chart 1: Showing gender of the respondents26 Chart 2: Findings if purchase requisition used are from the user unit28 Chart 3: Showing whether PPDA procedure is followed29 Chart 4:: Showing relationship between ethics and procurement30 Chart 5: Showing how low pay has contributed to unethical practices†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 32 Chart 6: Findings if there is relationship between ethics and quality of goods procured33 Chart 7: showing whether organization have a mean of checking unethical practice of employees. 36 ACRONYMS PPDA Public Procurement and Disposal of Public assets Authority IGGInspector General of Government CHOGMCommonwealth Heads of Government Meeting PDEProcurement and Disposal Entitity SPSSStatistical Package for Social Sciences MOWTMinistry of Works and Transport ISOInternational Standards Organisation ABSTRACT The principle objective of carrying out this study was to assess the impact of procurement ethics on the quality of products procured in the public sector a case study of the ministry of works and trasport,and to come up with particular issues that need to be addressed in order to improve their effectviness and efficiency in their procurement activities. You read "Procurement Ethics and Quality of Goods Procured in Uganda" in category "Papers" The study used cross section design where data was gathered just once over a period of time in the ministry of works and transport ranging from the period (2000-2010). The research used descriptive research design which describes the phenomenon it was undertaken in order to ascertain and be able to describe the characteristics of variables of interest. The study used a sample size of 37 respondents who were purposively selected. Self administered questionnaires and interview guides were the main instruments of study and data was analyzed using frequencies, percentages and charts using Microsoft excel. Findings on procurement ethics was that there some ethical issues that arise such as bribery, nepotism, tribalism, leaking of confidential information, pressure from those in authority above, awarding of contracts to those who are not the best evaluated bidders, conflict of interest, lack of transparency and single sourcing, embezzlement of funds and also harassment this was attributed to greed and low pay offered to the employees. Findings on quality of products procured were that when the PPDA procurement procedures are followed majority of the employees were of the view that it contribute to procurement of quality products. Recommendation on the issue of ethics and quality is that procurement officers should always be sensitized on the importance of ethics and the society as whole needs to be educated on the importance of ethics to reduce on the unethical practices by bidder CHAPTER ONE 1. 1Background of the Study According to (Kenneth Lyson 2007) procurement ethics is the principle conduct governing an individual or group concern to what is right or wrong. Ethics is about fairness deciding what is right or wrong defining practices and rules which underpin responsible conduct between individuals and group it is a sense of upright both of conviction and action. (International standards organization 8402) defines the fundamental terms relating to quality concepts, it states that quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product that bears on the ability to satisfy stated or implied needs and they go ahead to give the dimensions of quality as performance, reliability serviceability conformance durability aesthetics and perceived quality. According to research done by (Edgar Agbar and Niegel shipman 2006) titled public procurement reform in developing countries: the Ugandan experience, procurement in Uganda consists 70% of the national budget and yet according to the inspector general of government 90% of complaints about corruption in the office are procurement related, and according to the (African pear report 2006) pubic sector losses 268. 6 million dollars directly due to unethical practices. In 2005 procurement audit carried out by the public procurement and disposal authority in Uganda out of the 322 contracts audited only 7 of the contract were clean that is only 2% of the contract reviewed. According to the (parliamentary accounts committee report on commonwealth heads of government meeting 2009) focusing on ministry of works and transport most of the products procured by the ministry were not of the right quality. For example over one billion shillings were lost due to purchasing of poor construction materials like asphalt, sand, stones, steel which were not of the right quantity and quality. This was attributed to the lapse in the procurement ethics and procedures. The auditor general also pointed on the poor quality of the roads and wanted the contracts for construction of those roads terminated and government money refunded or contractors make good of there works, because most of the roads constructed or reconstructed had potholes or ripped and some stretches of the roads poorly done and not of the recommended design and in some cases the roads were designed and not constructed at all for example the Manyago road (62kms) the Najjanamkumbi-Makindye road 1. km designed by MBW consulting engineers. According to the parliamentary accounts committee on commonwealth heads of government meeting 2009) the ministry of works and transport was responsible for procuring vehicles for transport. The vehicles were to include executive vehicles for the majesty and other heads of government, police vehicle and motor cycles, ambulances command and patrol vehicles at cost Shillings 20 bi llion. This was supposed to be done through a competitive process and the last two best evaluated bids were by spear motors and motor care Uganda limited, spear motors had the best bid but the ministry decide to use direct sourcing and the contract was awarded to motor care Uganda limited owned by 56 percentages by a cabinet minister Hon. Kuteesa. The company claimed to be importing BMW’S from Germany but they were importing them from Austria and Denmark the initials cost was 38,000 euro’s for a brand new BMW from Germany but the ministry of work and transport spent over 47,000 euro’s for second hand BMWs from Austria and Denmark which did not conform to the standards set by the procurement entity under the ministry. They were 204 BMWs but it is believed that 174 of he BMW’s were not of the required standard. Also Toyota (u) limited was given a direct contract to supply ambulances at a cost shillings 2,893,469, 700 billion. The ambulances were supposed to be 23 and all of ambulances did not conform to the set standard of quality and specification. They lacked oxygen cylinders, hooks, drug cabinets, emergency lights. Although the manufacturers acknowledged these defects and the low quality of the ambulances nothing was done to rectify the situation. The committee also found out that only 21 of 23 ambulances were delivered. 1. 2 Statement of the Problem The lack of procurement planning, corruption and conflict of interest and political interference has led to procurement of poor quality products in the ministry of works and transport for example minister for works Hon Byabagambi outside of the commonwealth heads of government budget he directed the consultant engineers (M/s Multiplan) to carry out additional works which were not well stated outside the law in total disregard for the law this variation led to a loss of shillings 1. 7billion. This was flouting of the public procurement and disposal authority law. The procurement system in Uganda varies in major way due to the fact that most projects are donor funded institutions like the world bank, international monetary fund and the European union and thus there is no consistency in the ministry of works and transport for a certain procurement system and creating loopholes for unethical staff to embezzle money through means like defining specification to fit single contractors, substituting specified goods with inferior goods selective release of information to favor contractors, charge for skills below those specified which is causing poor quality being procured. . 3 Purpose of the Study The study is carried out in order to establish the relationship between procurement ethics and quality of products procured. 1. 4 Objectives of the Study (i) To establish procurement procedure used/ followed under the ministry of works and transport. ii) To identify the cause of unethical conduct by procurement personnel in ministry of works and transport. iii) To assess the relationship between procurement ethics and quality of product procured. 1. 5 Research Question i) How are procurement procedures followed under the ministry of works and transport? i) What are the causes of un-ethical conduct in procurement in the ministry of works and transport? iii) What is the relationship between procurement ethics and quality of products procured? 1. 6Scope of the Study The scope include three major areas that is; 1. 6. 1Time Scope: The research will be done between January to June 2011 and the research intends to concentrate on the literature published between 2000-2010 in order to identify the variable problems. 1. 6. 2Subject Scope: The study shall be done in the ministry of works and transport and shall concentrate within Kampala city. The people to be interviewed in the study are the employees of the ministry under the procurement department. The contextual scope of this study will focus on the impact of procurement ethics on quality of products procured. 1. 6. 3Geographical Scope: The study will be carried out in the ministry of Works and Transport in Kampala district plot 4/6 Entebbe Uganda. 18 Significance of the Study The research will be significance in the following ways: †¢ The study will help improve my skills and knowledge as a researcher in doing research. The study will also help improve the ministry of Works and Transport in appreciating procurement ethics and thus improving quality of product and services offered by the ministry. †¢ The research will also contribute knowledge as literature review to researchers interested in the same area of research. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction: This chapter deals with review of the related literature on the study of the variables specificall y procurement ethics and quality of products procured in the public sector in Uganda. . 1Ethics Moral principles that govern a person’s behavior or the conducting of an activity, It can also be described as the branch of knowledge that deals with moral principle (oxford dictionary 2001). Ethics can also be described as principle of conduct governing an individual or a profession. (Webster’s third new international dictionary) (According to Kenneth Lyson 2006) Ethics is the principle of conduct governing an individual or groups, concern for what is right or wrong, good or bad. 2. 1. Procurement Ethics The main principle of procurement ethics are impartiality or objectivity, openness and full disclosure, confidentiality, due diligence, competence and duty of care, fidelity professional responsibility, avoiding potential or apparent conflict of interest. These can be characterized by accountability, responsiveness, professionalism, transparency, open competition, confiden tiality, non discrimination and fair play. (Kenneth Lyson 2006). 2. 2How Ethics is ensured in Public Procurement Ethics in the ministry of works and transport has been ensured through a put in place code of ethical conduct in business which must be signed by employees which is listed below 1. Employees shall not use their authority for personal gain and shall seek to uphold and uphold reputation of the Ugandan government. 2. Employees shall reveal any personal interest that may impinge or might be deemed by others to impinge on employee’s business dealing. 3. (i) Employee’s shall respect the confidentiality of information received in the course of business dealing and shall never use such information for personal gain. ii) Information given by employees in the course of business dealing shall be true and fair and not designed to mislead. 4. Employees shall avoid any business arrangement that might prevent effective operation of fair competitive. 5. Employees shall not accept business gifts from current or potential government suppliers. 6. Employees shall refrain from any business hospitality that might be viewed by others as having an influence in making a government business decision. public procurement and disposal of public asset authority act 2003) Also there deterrent measures put in place by the (public procurement and disposal authority act 2003)to ensure ethics are maintained in the government ministries like ministry of works and transport where in section 95 a list of offences are listed like colluding to commit fraudulent or corrupt act, exerting undue influence on any officer or employee, refusal to answer summons and on conviction one is liable to a fine of 250 currency point and each currency is worth 20,000 Uganda shillings or to a term of imprisonment not exceeding 3 years or both. . 3Ethical Issues in Procurement. 2. 3. 1Corruption One of the major factors that affect quality of products procured in the public sector is corruption; few activities create greater temptation or offer more opportunities for corruption than the public sector pro curement. Hardly a day will pass by without another major scandalous public procurement activity in the papers (Pope 2000). For example in the ministry of works and transport out of the 91 billion offered for construction of roads during the common wealth heads of government meeting 21 billion was lost due to corruption by the officers in the ministry (Parliamentary accounts committee report 2009). The main purpose of the procurement procedure is to ensure openness to all stakeholders involved in the procurement exercises. (Robert 1988) argues that corruption can be equated to the formulae = (M + D – A) where corruption equals to monopoly, discretion minus accountability. J M Ntayi 2009) on the other hand notes that corruption in least developed countries occurs when there is motive and opportunity, corruption is a crime of opportunity, the opportunity being institution inefficiencies. Corruption procurement is â€Å"grand† and at alarming levels, the integrity and ethics of procurement staff and those helping out with technical activities is highly questioned since they do not seem to adher e to any code of ethical conduct to guide there ethical responsibilities. According to (Wade 1995) corruption may increase transaction cost by 50%. A purchaser who wants violate the law has a couple of opportunities in his possession through which he can manipulate the process in a desired direction, these include arranging the composition of a tended in such a way that one may avoid the application of tendering procedures above the threshold and instead use simplified procedures including designing the technical specification or terms of reference to favor a certain product or service or to exclude potential bidders. Others are including the award criteria in tender evaluation which are completely irrelevant to the actual procurement and evidently discriminatory towards certain suppliers. Manipulation of the process can include using non- open tendering procedures such as restricted procedure or direct procurement , designing contract arrangement with obvious ambition to favor a certain suppliers, accepting false information and misleading documentation from bidders and manipulation of the decision making process (Westring and jadoun 2001). The (World Bank report 2000) rates public procurement as an area of government activity in which the risk of corruption are very high. The World Bank further asserts that to offer total solutions which would continue to deliver advantages and to be responsible to the future needs of clients the key strength lie in the skills and professionalism of staff. This requires the ability to gain a close understanding of the clients business through training and capacity building. It should be noted that corruption in procurement is not exclusive domain of the buyer who controls the purse strings but the supplier or contractor who makes an unsolidated offer can easily initiate it, corruption in procurement also takes form of tailoring specification to favor particular supplier restricting information about contracting opportunities and creating situations of emergencies and urgency so as to use single source bidding simultaneously supplier can corrupt the procurement process by colluding to fix bid prices offering bribes and interfering in the evaluation process and thus affecting quality of goods, works and supplies procured ( Pope 2000). The most frequent source of corruption public procurement takes the form of commissions paid or purchased items to officials in the procurement process. This practice threatens sound decision making by those involved in the procurement process for the higher commissions the better the opportunities of purchasing from the firm and thus affecting quality of goods, works and supplies (Vinold journal of trade 2001). The recipients of clandestine money in the case of government contracts are not only public officials but also members of parliament, political parties and their office bearer. The national laws allow such contributions provided the payment are disclosed and are made without expectation of favors, in practice however the business firms making such payments try to obtain assurances from the recipient that they would helped by persuading the government the take decisions that would benefit there companies (Vinold journal of world trade, 2001). The (Inspector general of government report 2005) further shows that there has been persistent flouting of the laid down procedures and guidelines by procuring entities. This has resulted into colossal loss of high sums of public funds and the procurement of goods, works and supplies that barely meet their intended objectives. 2. 3. 2Conflict of Interest (According to Pope 2000) conflict of interest in procurement is the order of the day. This arises when people in the public sector are influenced by personal and financial consideration when doing their jobs thereby influencing their decisions. Decisions are made for the wrong reasons in favor of people to whom they are close thus impairing the objectivity and independence of their judgments on quality specifications. In procurement when handling a tender, all conflict should be noted recorded and the official involved should then exclude themselves from further involvement in the tender awarding decisions. (Pope 2000) further asserts that the procurement process should have clearly stated and well understood policies and procedures as well as written codes of conduct to deal with actual, potential and perceived conflict of interest. He is of the view that if a relative is unquestionably the best evaluated bidder they shall be awarded the tender if the correct procedure is followed. In the ministry of works and transport there is a precision for directing sourcing to favor one company supplying every time there is a conflict of interest either among the officers involved in procurement or when there is olitical pressure coming from above for example the ministry in 2007 opted to lease vehicles at a cost of 4. 17 billion shillings from motor care Uganda limited for use for a short period of times r ather than buying vehicles from motor spears at a cost of shillings 6 billion of which the vehicles would have been completely purchased by the ministry this was a result of cabinet ministers interest in the purchase of the goods (Parliamentary account committee report 2009) Leakage of information during the tendering process is a serious ethical procurement issue. This is where some officers leak information to their preferred bidder in advance of the advertisement and afford them an advantage in the preparation of bids. Celentani and Ganuza 1989) consider a procurement problem when potential bidder have private information about their production cost since the procurement agent is also in charge of verifying delivered quality in exchange for a bribe, they argue that the agent can allow an arbitrary firm to be awarded the realization of the project and to produce a quality level lower than announced. According to (Strombom 2001) government procurement contracts for construction pro ject such as airports deems and highways generate immense opportunities for bribes, kickbacks and other payoffs and this is the reason for the below par works done by the firms awarded the contracts. 2. 3. 3Donor Interest Donor interest sometimes hinders the best practices in procurement, in cases where donor favor firms from their own countries of origin even though there are other firms that can offer superior quality products. In cases of big construction and other contracts even after tenders are issued, pressure is applied by foreign government at a high political level for the contracts to be awarded to their companies it is common to hold out a promise for additional provisions of financial aid if the contract is awarded to them (Vinold journal of world trade, 2001). Procuring can conclude with contractors by omitting required advertisement or calling for bids with shortened bids submission periods. Splitting of contracts can be done to avoid exceeding threshold set by the tender boards. 2. 3. 4Delayment of Funds The ( Inspector general of government report 2002) stipulates that the lack of funds on a timely basis from ministry of finance planning and economic development has also led to procurement malpractices procuring entities claim they cannot advertise tender when they are not sure of the availability of funds from the ministry of finance, planning and economic development so when the funds are received later procurement procedures are not followed in the acquisition of goods, works and services resulting in low quality of goods works and services purchased. Entities usually cite cash flow constraint and therefore end up splitting amount which would require different methods of purchasing, contract for such suppliers are usually renewed extended for much longer period these unethical practices are the reason why the government keeps on procuring low quality goods which do not meet their objectives as a result of lack of competition in the tendering process. 2. 4 Quality (International standard organization) ISO defines quality as the totality of feature and characteristics of a product that bears on the ability to satisfy stated or implied needs and they go ahead to give dimensions of quality as performance, reliability serviceability conformance durability aesthetics and perceives quality. 2. 4. 1Quality of Products (According to Garvin 2007) quality of a product procured can be seen through five approaches which are as follows: Transcendent approach; quality is absolute and universally recognizable. The oncept is closely related to com parison of product attributes and characteristics. Product based approach; quality is a precise and measurable variable in this approach difference in quality reflects difference in quality of some product characteristics. User based approach; quality is defined in terms of fitness for use or how well the product fulfills its intended functions. Manufacturing based approach; quality is conformance to specification that is targets and tolerance determined by product designers. Value based approach; quality is determined in terms of cost and prices, here a quality products one that provides performance at an acceptable price or conformance to an acceptable cost. Quality is therefore determined by balancing technical consideration such as fitness for use performance safety and reliability with economic factors including price and availability it is therefore the optimum quality for the application that should be sought rather than the highest quality. Quality of goods procured can be determined by if they meet technical specification, delivery, environmentally sound, quality assurance, and accuracy of documentation speed of response and customer service. 2. 4. 2Determinants of Quality According to (Kelly and Male 2003) the following are the determinants of quality in purchasing Customer satisfaction; another benchmark for quality is the ability to meet customer expectation or even exceeds them. Conformance to specification; a product is be deemed to have high quality if it conform the specification spelt like design, size, color, weight. Product attributes: This is what leads to certain dimension of qualities for example performance, features, reliability, serviceability, durability safety and aesthetics. Budget cost; a product is deemed to be of quality if it is within cost and its performance is at an acceptable cost. Timing; product quality can also be determined by the time which it is delivered on, is it at the right time that was specified or has the product delivery been delayed. Leadership; how is the executive team and all the managers inspiring and ensuring total quality for continuous improvement in the organization. Goals/policy; how the companies goals and policies reflect the principle of total quality of products. 2. 4. Public Procurement and Effective Quality Products and Service Delivery. Effective procurement practices are defined as those systems offering a high level transparency, accountability and value for money. (Ministry of defense procurement handout, 2004). The principle aim of procurement should be to obtain goods and services of the right quality in the right quantity from the right source, delivered to the right place and at the least cost and price (Lyson 2000 Telgen 2007). Successful and efficient procurement practices are those that meet the need of customer’s achieve optimum condition and value in regard to allocating of scarce tax payers resources (J. M Ntayi 2009). The practice needs a labor force with effective management skills that develop clear and professional specifications with full knowledge of a competitive process negotiation and monitoring skill. (Hunja Steane et al 2003) continues to say that procurement system implemented with sound management practices in place ensure successful quality and service delivery to stakeholders. The sound practices demand that those responsible for implementing procurement should ensure that the objectives are clear and that quality is sustained (Walker and Sidwell 1996) continues to say performance quality should not be measure on the basis of time and cost only but also quality of product and services as well as other relevant measures. According to research done assessing competitive procurement procedures, findings indicate that it is a fact that competition in public procurement does improve efficiency and effectiveness. Competition is the tenet of a free market economy and it is the basis for cost effective purchasing quality and timeliness. It keeps providers on their toes it is an incentive for innovation improvement in quality and reduction in cost in improves proper allocation of government resources, high quality and timely procurement and budgetary saving. (Lemke 2003) 2. 5Public Procurement Acquisition by purchase, rental, lease, hire purchase, license, tenancy franchise or any other contractual means of goods or services by the government. (Telgen 1998). 2. 5. 1Procurement in the Ministry of Work and Transport Public procurement is a powerful instrument for the transformation and realization of social economic goals and open and competitive public procurement and contracting procedure begins with the government description of its requirement and initiation of suppliers to indicate their interest in the contract and there professional capacity to fulfill it. (Sigma policy brief 2000). The government identifies potential suppliers and invites them to submit bids. The process must ensure that supplier can infarct meet the specification of product quality, delivery dates and continuity. After the bidding phase most procurement system require a public declaration of competitors names and bid price of the successful bidder (Sigma policy brief 2000). The procurement cycle is often high complex process. There is a series of closely interrelated activities between the initial identification of needs and the final delivery of quality product and services which requires coordination and quality control to achieve the best value. However this can be undermined by unethical practices by the officers in the procuring entity. (Westing and jadoun 1996) Effective procurement is considered to be a key strategic management tool in driving down cost and improving operational efficiency while ineffective procurement wastes money resources and time (Westing and Jadoun 1996). 2. 5. 2Procurement Cycle in the Ministry of Works and Transport The following are the procurement procedures that are followed in the ministry of works and transport as per the guidelines issued by the (public procurement and disposal of public assets authority 2003). ) Procurement plan and budget: this procedure is undertaken by the user department, procurement unit, board/ council and the accounting officer. b) Procurement requisition: This is the responsibility of the user department c) Confirmation of available funds; the accounting officer is the one to undertake the function. d) Review of specification, procurement methods; potential supply market procurement method evaluation criteria and potential supply market. This is the duty of the procurement unit and the user department. e) Procurement methods approval; is the responsibilities of the contracts committee. f) Preparation of bidding documents; this roles is played by the procurement unit. ) Approval of bidding documents ;This role is played by the contracts committee h) Advertisement and invitation of bids; the advertisement is done by the procurement unit and it should be in a newspaper of wide circulation. i) Receipt and opening of bids this is the procedure is undertaken by the procurement unit but it must be done in front of bidders. j) Evaluation of bids; the evaluation of bids is the role of the procurement unit and the user department which will provide technical inputs. k) Review of evaluation report ;this is the responsibility of the contracts committee l) Award of contract; this is the responsibility of the contracts committee.. ) Signing of contract, communication of awards, administrative review; this is the work of the accounting officer he does this on behalf of all the members of procuring disposing entity. n) Contract management and monitoring; the responsibilities of contract management and monitoring fall to the user department and procurement unit the user department shall report any departure from the contract by bidders. o) Contract performance evaluation and report; the duties will be performed by the user department and the procurement unit. 2. 5. 3Procurement Methods Followed in the Ministry of Works and Transport The following are some of the methods of procurement that are used in the ministry of works and transport to ensure quality products are purchased Open domestic bidding; this method is open to participation on equal terms by all providers through advertisement of procurement or disposal opportunity. Open international bidding; this method is open to participation on equal terms by all providers through advertisement of the procurement disposal activity and which specifically seeks to attract foreign providers. Restricted domestic bidding; is the procurement or disposal method where bids are obtained by direct invitation without open advertisement. Restricted international bidding; is the procurement or disposal procedure where bids are obtained by direct invitation without open advertisement and the invited bidders include foreign providers. Quotations and proposals are simplified procurement and disposal method which compare price quotation obtained from a number of providers. Direct procurement is a sole source procurement disposal method which shall be used for very low value requirement. Micro procurement this method is used for very low value procurement requirement. The above methods are recommended by the (public procurement and disposal authority act 2003). According to J M Ntayi (2009) the continuing preference by the ministry of works and transport for direct procurement and micro procurement has hindered competition and thus affecting quality of products and resulting in increased cost. 2. 6Effects of Unethical Procurement According to the parliamentary account committee on common wealth heads of government meeting report 2009)The following are some of the effects of unethical procurement – Poor quality of materials purchased. – There will be inflated prices. – Loss of government funds. â €“ Slows down economic in economic development of a country. 2. 7Conclusion: In conclusion, the ministry of works and transport is falling behind in implementing effective procurement of quality product as a result of increasing discriminatory and non transparent means of procurement that do not favor accountability this was highlighted in the research by (Edgar Agbar and Niegel shipman 2006) titled public procurement reforms in developing countries. According to them public procurement and disposal of public assets authority act (PPDA ACT 2003) gives the organization the mandate for the following functions advisory, data management, capacity building and audit function so as to improve good governance fight corruption and promote economic development and thus make key changes in procurement in Uganda and thus helping improve government function in the statutory bodies, central government and local government, However the organization is not autonomous enough to ensure implementation.. CHAPTER THREE Introduction: This chapter discusses how the study will be carried out. It discusses the research design the sampling design, sources of the data, data collection methods, tools, data processing, analysis, and presentation. 3. 1 Research Design The design used will be cross section study where data will be gathered just once over a period of time in the ministry of works and transport ranging from the period (2000-2010). The research will use descriptive research design which describes the phenomenon it will be undertaken in order to ascertain and be able to describe the characteristics of variables of interest. The research sought to explain the relationship between procurement ethics and quality of products procured in the ministry of works and transport. 3. 2 Survey Population The survey population will include the management and employees of the purchasing function and firms offering technical expertise to the purchasing function, the survey population were of 60 people. 3. 3 Sampling Design Purposive and simple random sampling without replacement will be used. 3. 3. Sampling Size The sample size using the krejcie and Morgan (1970) method will be of 37 members, where the sample will be from the ministry of works and transport and consultant firms offering technical expertise. Table 1: Showing Sample Size |Sample group |Sample size | |Procurement office |25 | |Technical experts |12 | |Total |37 | Source: primary data. 3. Source of Data 3. 4. 1Primary Data Primary data will be obtained from the ministry of works and transport through the use of interviews and questionnaires. 3. 4. 2Secondary Data Secondary data will be obtained from the already existing information both internal sources which are found within the organization and external sources were collected from publication and journals. 3. 5Data Collection Methods 3. 5. 1Observation The researcher intends to use none controlled non participant observation where the researcher will not participate and will watch everything from a distance while watching the researcher will be noting down the phenomenon. 3. 5. 2Survey This will be done through collecting information about the variables that is procurement ethics and the quality of products procured in the ministry of works and transport and technical experts in the sample. 3. 6Data Collection Instrument 3. 6. 1Questionnaire Semi structured questionnaires will be distributed to respondents who will be given time to answer them and return them for solving and analyzing by the researcher. 3. 6. 2Documentary review Secondary data will be obtained from reading already existing notes and taking notes of materials that is related to the research and a conclusion was reached from them. 3. 6. 3Interview guide, Informal interviews will be conducted using open ended questions the interview guide will help the researcher to carry out dialogue that is meaningful. 3. Data Processing Analysis and Presentation 3. 7. 1Data processing. The researchers after gathering the data will edit code classify and tabulate the data. 3. 7. 2Data analysis. The researcher will u se computer programs like Microsoft excel and (SPSS) statistical package for social sciences. This will result in computation of certain measures finding the relationships transforming and modeling data in order to highlight useful information. 3. 7. 3 Data presentation. The researcher will put the results of the research into graphs charts and tables into visual way of looking of data. CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS, DISCUSSION AND INTERPRETATION Introduction: This chapter presents analysis done in relation to the study objectives and research questions in chapter one, of this report under the topic procurement ethics and quality of products procured in the public sector case study of ministry of public works and transport. 4. 1Demographic Characteristics of Respondents Table 2: Showing response rate of respondents |Response |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Actual response |33 |89. 2 | |Non response |4 |10. 8 | |Total questionnaires issued |37 |100 | Source primary data: Table 2: According to Table 2 above it shows that out of the questionnaires issued the number of response was 89. % which is a good response rate which one can depend on to make conclusion and recommendation and the non response was 10. 8% Table 3: Showing the age of the respondents |Age |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |20-29 |13 |39. 4 | |30-39 |8 |24. 2 | |40-49 |6 |18. 2 | |50 and above |6 |18. 2 | |Total |23 |100 | Source: primary data Most respondents were in the age group 20-29 comprising 39. 4 % followed by age bracket 30-39 with 24. 2% with the age bracket 40-49 and 50 and above both comprising 18. 2% this implies that most of the employees are aged 40 years and below. Chart 1: Showing gender of the respondents [pic] Source: primary data According to chart 1 above most of the respondents were male comprising 57. 5% and only 42. 5% of the respondents were female this implies more males are employed than females. Table 4: Showing the Level of Education |Level of education |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Certificate |3 |9. | |Diploma |9 |27. 3 | |Degree |14 |42. 4 | |Post graduate |6 |18. 2 | |Others |1 |3 | |Total |33 |100 | Source: primary data From table 4 above the level of education was found to be as follows those holding a certificate in procurement were 9. 1%, 27. % of the respondents were diploma holders while majority of the respondents were degree holders 42. 4% with 18. 2% being post graduates while 3% w ere holding other qualification Table 5: Showing Marital status |Marital status |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Single |14 |42. 5 | |Married |18 |54. 5 | |Widowed or divorced |1 |3. 0 | |Total |33 |100. 0 | Source: primary data From the above table 42. % of the respondents were single while 54. 5% are married with 3% being widowed or divorced this shows that most employees working for the organization are married. Table 6: Showing how long one has worked for the Organization |Number of years worked |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Below 5 years |14 |42. 4 | |Between 5 and 10 years |11 |33. 3 | |Between 11 and 15 years |5 |15. 2 | |Above 15 years |3 |9. | |Total |33 |100. 0 | Source: primary data From the above table showing the number of years the respondents has worked for the organization 42. 4% have worked there for below 5 years, 33. 3% have worked for the organization between 5 and 10 years and 15. 2% have worked for the ministry between 11 and 15 years while 9. 1 % of the responden ts have worked for the organization above 15 years. 62 Findings on how products are purchased in the organization Chart 2: Findings if purchase requisition used are from the user unit [pic] Source: Primary data From chart 2 above it indicates that 36. % of the respondents strongly agreed that purchase requisition from user units are used, 45. 5%agree that purchase requisition from user units are used while 6. 1% are not sure with 12. 1% disagreeing that requisition from user units are used while none of the respondents disagreed this means that purchase requisitions are used. Table 7: showing whether purchase requisition are handled on time |Response |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly agree |2 |6. 1 | |Agree |13 |39. | |Not sure |8 |24. 2 | |Disagree |7 |21. 2 | |Strongly disagree |3 |9. 1 | |Total |33 |100 | Source: primary data From table 7 above 6. 1% strongly agree there is handling of requisition on time while 39. 4% agree that requisitions are handled on time 24. 2% are no t sure whether requisition are handled on time while 21. 2 disagrees with 9. strongly disagreeing this means that purchase requisitions are not handled on time Chart 3: Showing whether PPDA procedure is followed [pic] Source primary data From chart 3 above 21. 2% strongly agree that PPDA procedure are followed 42. 4% agree that PPDA procedures are followed 12. 7 % are not sure whether PPDA procedure is adhered to with 21. 2% disagreeing that PPDA procedures are followed while 30% strongly disagreeing with the statement this implies that PPDA procedure are followed Table 8: Showing whether procedures followed helps in procuring quality products |Response |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly agree |11 |33. | |Agree |15 |45. 4 | |Not sure |6 |18. 2 | |Disagree |1 |9. 1 | |Strongly disagree |0 |0 | |Total |33 |100 | Source: primary data According to table 8 above 33. 3 % of the respondents strongly agree that procurement procedure followed result in procuring of quality goods with 45. 4% agreeing also, 18. % of the respondents are not sure whether the procedures followed results in procuring quality goods while 9. 1 % disagree with none of the respondents strongly disagreeing this implies that the procedure followed results in procuring quality products. Table 9: Showing whether products procured are of quality |Response |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly agree |9 |27. 3 | |Agree |13 |39. 3 | |Not sure |6 |18. | |Disagree |4 |18. 2 | |Strongly disagree |1 |3. 0 | |Total |33 |100 | Source: primary data From the findings in table 9 above27. 3% of the respondents strongly agree that products procured are of quality,39. 3% also agree that the products procured are of quality while 18. 2% are not sure 12. 7% of the respondents disagree goods procured are of quality while 3. 0% strongly disagree. Most employee’s think that me reason goods, being procured now are now are of quality is because of the PPDA procedure’s put in place this implies that products procured are of quality. 4. 3 Findings on causes of unethical practice in procurement Chart 4: Showing relationship between ethics and procurement [pic] Source: primary data The presentation from chart 4 above shows that there is a relationship between ethics and procurement because 91% of the respond agreed with the statement while 9% stated that there is no relationship, They gave the main reason being that that an ethical person is willing always to conducts himself in a moral way and this guides procurement. Ethics was defined by many as a discipline governing conduct in on organization. Table 10: showing whether weak enforcement measure of procurement law contributes to unethical practice |Response |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly agree |9 |27. 3 | |Agree |14 |42. 4 | |Not sure |2 |6. 0 | |Disagree |4 |12. 1 | |Strongly disagree |4 |12. | |Total |33 |100 | Source: primary data According to the results of table 10 above 27. 3% of the respondents thought that weak enforcement measure of the law contributed to unethical practices with 42. 4% agreeing while 6. 0% were not sure 12. 1% disagreed and 12. 1% strongly disagreed this indicates that weak enforcement measures of the law contributes to unethical practices. Table 11: Showing whether moral degradation in the society is a cause of unethical conducts |Response |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly agree |8 |24. | |Agree |10 |30. 3 | |Not sure |7 |21. 2 | |Disagree |5 |15. 2 | |Strongly disagree |3 |9. 1 | |Total |33 |100 | Source: primary data Results from table 11 above shows that 24. 2% of the population st rongly agreed that moral degradation in the society causes unethical conduct with 30. % agreeing while 21. 2% were not sure with 21. 2 disagreeing that moral degradation in society causes unethical conduct and 9. 1% strongly disagreed this means that the respondents agree that moral degradation of the society contributes to unethical conduct. Chart 5: Showing how low pay has contributed to unethical practices. [pic] Source: primary data According to the presentation in chart 5 above, 45. 5% of the respondents agreed that low pay has contributed to unethical practices with 15. 1% not being sure and 9. 1% disagreeing non of the respondent strongly disagreed that low pay does not cause unethical practices this indicates that 90. % of the respondents agree that low pay contributes to unethical practices. Table 12: Showing whether unethical practice of bidder contributes to unethical conduct by staff |Response |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly agree |10 |30. 3 | |Agree |10 |30. 3 | |Not sure |4 |12. 1 | |Disagree |6 |18. | |Strongly disagree |3 |9. 1 | |Total |33 |100 | Source: Primary data According to the results in table 12 above, 30. 3% of the respondents strongly agreed that unethical practice of bidder contributes to unethical practice of employees with 30. 3% also agreeing while 12. 1% were not sure. 18. 2% disagreed that unethical practice of leader contributes to unethical practice of employees while 9. 1% strongly disagreed this gives the implication that conduct of bidder can affect the conduct of procurement staff. Some of unethical practices cited by the respondents include corruption, favoritism, fraud, extortion and sexual harassment, bribery with the respondents citing greed, low payment, and lack of effective reporting system as the main causes of unethical practices 4. 4Findings on the relationship between ethics and quality of goods procured Chart 6: Findings if there is relationship between ethics and quality of goods procured [pic] Source: Primary Data Most of the respondents from the findings of chart 6 above agreed that there is a relationship between ethics and quality of goods procured comprising 94% while 6% stated that there was no relationship. According to the respondents when one is ethical it results to award of bids to best evaluated bidders and that the procurement procedures will be adhered to resulting to procurement of quality goods Table 13: showing whether the organization code of ethics contributes to quality products being procured |Response |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly agree |9 |27. 3 | |Agree |11 |33. 3 | |Not sure |6 |18. 2 | |Disagree |4 |12. 1 | |Strongly disagree |3 |9. | |Total |33 |100 | Source: primary data From table 13 above, 27. 3% strongly agree that the organization code of ethics contribute to quality products being produced with 33. 3% agreeing while 18. 2% of the respondents were not sure, 12. 1% of the respondents disagree that the organization code of ethics has contributed to procuring of quality products with 9. 1% strongly disagreeing this implies that organization code of ethics contributes to procurement of quality products. Table 14: showing whether suppliers meet organization specification of quality products Response |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly agree |7 |21. 2 | |Agree |14 |42. 4 | |Not sure |4 |12. 1 | |Disagree |5 |15. 2 | |Strongly disagree |3 |9. 1 | |Total |33 |100 | Source primary data The results in table 14 show that 42. 4 % of the respondents agree that suppliers meet organization specification with 21. 2% strongly agreeing while 12. 1% are not sure. 15. 2% of the respondents disagree that suppliers meet organization specification with 9. 1% strongly disagreeing this indicates that suppliers meet specification Table 15: showing whether unethical practice staff has resulted in procurement poor quality products. |Response |Frequency |Percentage % | |Strongly agree |10 |30. | |Agree |14 |42. 4 | |Not sure |4 |12. 1 | |Disagree |3 |9. 1 | |Strongly disagree |2 |6. 1 | |Total |33 |100 | Source: primary data From table 15 above 30. % of the respondents strongly agreed that unethical practice of staff have resulted in procurement of poor quality products with 42. 4% agreeing while 12. 1% were not sure. 9. 1% of the respondents disagreed that unethical practice of employees does not lead to procurement of poor quality products with 9. 1 strongly disagreeing this mean s that unethical practice of staff contributes to procuring poor quality products. Chart 7: showing whether organization have a mean of checking unethical practice of employees. [pic] Source primary data: According to the presentation in chart 7 above 27. 3% of the respondents strongly agree that the organization has a means of checking unethical practice with 48. 5% agreeing, 6. % of the respondents are not sure. With 12. 1% of the respondents disagreeing that the organization has a means of checking unethical conduct of employees with 12. 1% strongly disagreeing this implies the organization has means of checking unethical practice of employees. 4. 5Ethics in the Organization An interview with the employees of the procurement Department in the Ministry of Works and Transport (MOWT) the researcher found out that the PPDA act and regulation section 49 and 87 respectively How to cite Procurement Ethics and Quality of Goods Procured in Uganda, Papers

Event That Changed My Life free essay sample

There are many things in this world that one can do to completely change their entire outlook on life. They could become a stronger follower of God, visit a Buddhist temple, lose a loved one, or donate to a shelter or store for the less fortunate. An event that definitely changed my life for the better was when I was at a battered women’s shelter when I was 9 years old and realized just how much of a blessing of a life I have. I was in the third grade the year we volunteered at the shelter. My mom Katherin had recently wed my step dad Wes. Also they had just had a little baby girl, my half sister Ella. This had been a busy year for my family because we were also new to the state of Georgia. We had just moved from Arkansas. My mom had been looking at places for the family to volunteer at for the holidays because we had never done anything like that before. We will write a custom essay sample on Event That Changed My Life or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page My mom had found a battered womens shelter in Atlanta and signed us up to serve Thanksgiving. We were all excited about doing thanksgiving in a new place. I was a little skeptical at first then my mom told me that there would be kids for me to play with there so I was a lot more excited. Once we got there on Thanksgiving Day It was great, the women and their children were so happy that we were there. At first I didn’t really understand why they were so happy, I mean for all I knew they did this every year, but now I have come to realize that for those women and children it was a huge deal because most people don’t do nice things for less fortunate people all the time. My mom had been right about all the kids that would be there. The kids were all really nice and fun! A lot of the kids clothes looked either to small or really dirty but I had expected it because my mom told me that these people didn’t have very much money to buy new clothes or toys. There was one little girl in particular that was the reason I had an epiphany at the age of nine. She was really little, about five or six. She and her mom were new to the shelter. The little girls name was Jaxy and her mom’s name was Samantha. Jaxy was so precious. She had the cutest short blonde hair. It was like little spiral strands of gold, and her eyes were the most gorgeous shade of green, kind of like a field of clover. She was quite pale and skinny ( I figured from not getting to eat very often). Jaxy had been playing with the other kids and I until dinner time and then she had to go to bed. While she was on her way to bed I heard her ask her mom where her dad was and her mom said he was just at work but then looked at the other moms and became really sad. I had asked my mom later why Ms. Samantha’s had looked so sad earlier when Jaxy asked about her dad. â€Å" Well, sweetie these kids and their mommies had to run away from the daddies because the daddies weren’t very nice so the mommies took their children and came here to a safe place for them to stay so that the dads don’t find them and hurt the mommies for running away,† my mom told me. â€Å" That’s so sad† I said I felt really sad for those kids and the situation they had been put in. It was at that moment that I had realized that I was very lucky to have a dad, well actually two dads, that loved me and cared for me and many people that loved me, and that I shouldn’t take my great family for granted. I wanted to know if there was anything we could do to help and my mom said that us coming today was something that was a very big help to these families. Ever since that experience with all those families that Thanksgiving I have come to realize that you never know when things could change in your life and you should never take any second for granted because you never know what’s right around the corner. I think it’s a lesson all people should learn because so many people just go through life not thinking anything bad could ever happen to them, and they don’t know that there are so many people out there struggling to just get by day by day and they don’t realize just how lucky they are.

Friday, May 1, 2020

The Wife of Bath Would Have Won the Contest free essay sample

Section D03 The Wife of Bath Would Have Won the Contest In Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales, the host decides to come up with a story telling contest to help shorten the pilgrims Journey to Canterbury. He states that the person who tells the most instructive and amusing tale will have supper at the cost of all the other pilgrims. Because Chaucer does not finish all the tales, there is no winner. However, the story that stands out the most and meets the criteria in the eneral prologue is the Wife of Bath. In order to save his life, the Knight was required to come up with the answer to one question: What is the thing that women most desire? He was given a year and a day to derive an answer and it came down to the last day. He came across an old woman and she made him promise to do whatever she asked and by night time he would have his answer. We will write a custom essay sample on The Wife of Bath Would Have Won the Contest or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Desperate for an answer, the Knight agreed to this and sure enough the old woman asked him to marry her. This is amusing one of the credentials to win the contest because ever in a million years would the Knight have thought the woman was going to ask for that. When it came time for them to make love to each other, the Knight simply could not do it. This is also amusing trying to picture a knight lying in bed next to an old woman. However, this leads into how to the story is instructive as well another one of the qualities to win the contest. While lying in bed together, the woman asked the Knight what it was she could do to get him to make love to her. He proceeded to tell her she was old, plain, and lowbred and nothing she could do could ake him love her. She then countered by explaining to him that if he were nicer to her she could set things right. Just because someone is of gentle birth doesnt make them a gentleman. Someone who does good deeds and kindness to others is the greater gentlemen. Then she quoted Dante by saying that good people dont become good because their parents are good but because of what they are inside. Fire is fire no matter whether it is burning in a house all by itself or if it was seen by many. Gentleness is not measured by what you possess since many people fail to ive up to what they are. But fire is still fire. Gentility is not handed down from your parentage but given by God and has nothing to do with your station in life. She goes on to tell him that even though her ancestors were not rich or of noble birth, God granted her to be a good person who didnt hurt anyone and to shrink from sinning. Didnt God choose to be born into poverty and God would never do a shameful thing. As Senaca says a person who accepts his poverty is rich even though he has nothing ecause he doesnt worry about having nothing. Juvenal puts it even better The poor can dance and sing in the relief of having nothing that will tempt a thief. When you are poor it is a great incentive to better yourself. Poverty is a kind of wealth that brings you closer to God and allows you to see who your truest friends are. The moral here is that being raised by rich parents in a lavish lifestyle does not automatically make you a good person and growing up in poverty does not mean you to be careful what you wish for. In the Knights case, he was so desperate for an answer because his life depended on it that he was willing to do anything. He would later regret this decision once he was forced to marry the old woman. This can be applied to anything in life. No matter how desperate you are or no matter what you want, think it through and be very careful what you wish for because in the end, it may not be worth it. These reasons are why the Wife of Bath would have won the contest. It is both instructive and amusing on numerous counts.